ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIALLY TOXIC METALS AND NUTRIENTS FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL, EDIBLE PLANTS, AND LAKE SEDIMENTS: A CASE STUDY OF HATTAR INDUSTRIAL ESTATE HARIPUR, PAKISTAN
Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)
Author: Tahir Asma, Khan Junaid, Hua-Zhou Yao, Faridullah, Yasin Rahim, Ismail Shah, Raja Zakir-Zahid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
An agricultural field located in the vicinity of the Hattar industrial Estate irrigates with industrial wastewater containing potentially toxic metals and excessive nutrients. In this study, onion field soil, wheat field soil, and edible parts of the wheat and onion were sampled from the field irrigated with long-term industrial wastewater to evaluate the potentially toxic metals (Cr, Cd, Ni, Fe, Zn, Hg, Cu) and excessive nutrients (K, Ca, Mg). Lake sediments were also sampled to examine the effects on polluted soil and edible plants. The results indicate that concentration level of potentially toxic metals are high in the soil and nutrients in the sediment. The plant component study shows that potentially toxic metals and nutrients are maximum in onion (root vegetable) than in wheat. During analysis of sediment’s effects on contaminated soil and spinach, it was concluded that potentially toxic metals were very high in spinach of contaminated soil than in sediments amended soil, while nutrients were high in sediments amended soil. A leafy part of spinach was more vulnerable to the accumulation of potentially toxic metals than other parts. The column leaching experiment shows that the concentration of metals and availability of nutrients in sediments amended soil is higher than in contaminated soil due to less uptake of nutrients and potentially toxic metals by spinach. It is concluded that sediments are suitable in polluted soil for reducing potentially toxic metals and excessive nutrient uptake by edible plants.