GEOENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION ALONG QUA IBOE TERMINAL SHORELINE, IBENO, SOUTHERN NIGERIA
Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)
Author: Uduak B. Ilaumo, Bassey E. Ephraim, Peter A. Neji, Akanimo D. Akpan, Gregory U. Sikakwe
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Coastal sediments and soils along Qua Iboe Terminal shoreline, Ibeno have suffered high potential of being contaminated by heavy metals leading to health risk. it is expedient to evaluate their levels in terms of contamination or /and pollution on the soils and sediments. The aim of this research was to determine the extent of contamination caused by heavy metals in the study area so as to assess its eco-toxicological risk and geochemical distribution pattern. Sediment and soil samples from Qua Iboe Terminal shoreline and its environs were collected and analyzed for Six heavy metals [Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), and Iron (Fe)] using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The physicochemical parameters of sediments and soils were determined using standard methods. The results of all the physicochemical parameters determined were within maximum tolerable limits. The average heavy metals concentration in soil and sediment followed the order of Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Mo with corresponding values for soil and sediment of 55.60, 48.30, 21.80, 11.9, 3.4 mg/kg and 47.80, 35.00, 17.90, 11.74 and 5.4 mg/kg respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that Pearson Correlation were significant at r >0.500 between some metals. The anthropogenic influence on soil indicated low contamination by Cu, Cr, and Zn and moderate contamination by Pb and Mo, for both sediments and soils. The geo-accumulation index for most metals was of class 0 (uncontaminated) except for elements like Pb and Mo. The enrichment factor had values less than 1.5 for both soil and sediments showing deficiency to minimal enrichment. The pollution load index (PLI) for sediment were < 1 indicating low pollution status and > 1 for soil at locations 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14 and 15 indicating moderate pollution status in some sites. Evaluated mean contamination factor revealed moderate contamination for Pb and Mo for both soil (1.71 & 3.43) and sediment(1.09 &1.14). On the basis of the analytical data available, areas in close proximity to the offshore installations (Utana/Iwokpom/Opulum Creek) have the greatest impact on sediment and soil in the study area.