Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

INSECT PEST INCIDENCE IN MUNGBEAN ACROSS VARIED TEMPERATURES AND ELEVATED CO2 CONCENTRATIONS

INSECT PEST INCIDENCE IN MUNGBEAN ACROSS VARIED TEMPERATURES AND ELEVATED CO2 CONCENTRATIONS

ABSTRACT

INSECT PEST INCIDENCE IN MUNGBEAN ACROSS VARIED TEMPERATURES AND ELEVATED CO2 CONCENTRATIONS

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Tamjida Islam Tora, Md. Mamunur Rahman, Mansura Afroz, Md. Ramiz Uddin Miah, Md. Humayun Kabir, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Jahidul Hassan, Md. Abdullah Al Mamun

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.01.2023.70.75

The effects of climate change, including extreme weather conditions characterized by rising atmospheric CO2 levels, alterations in precipitation patterns, and elevated temperatures, significantly impact crop production and the prevalence of agricultural pests. This study aimed to unravel the nuanced responses of various insect pests to these dynamic climatic shifts by conducting an experiment within the agronomy field at BSMRAU. The objective was to investigate the incidence of insect pests on mungbean plants under varying temperature and CO2 level conditions. To achieve this, four open top chambers (OTCs) were deployed, each featuring distinct CO2 concentrations, OTC-1 (400 ppm), OTC-2 (450 ppm), OTC-3 (500 ppm), and OTC-4 (550 ppm). Additionally, electronic thermo-hygrometers were strategically placed within these chambers to monitor the relevant environmental parameters. The results of this comprehensive study unveiled the presence of five distinct insect species that were observed infesting mungbean crops. These included aphids, ladybird beetles, whiteflies, bean pod borers, and caterpillars. The findings provided valuable insights into the intricate interplay between CO2 levels, temperature, and the incidence of these insect pests. Notably, it was found that an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 550 ppm created an optimal environment for aphid infestations, with an ideal temperature range between 32-34°C. In contrast, a concentration CO2 of 450 ppm was identified as most conducive to the other five insect species. Bean pod borers, in particular, demonstrated a preference for temperatures ranging from 30.1-32.9°C, while the impact of temperature variations on the remaining insect species was deemed statistically insignificant. These findings shed light on the complex relationships between rising CO2 levels, temperature fluctuations, and insect pest dynamics within the context of mungbean cultivation. The knowledge gained from this research is indispensable for the development of effective strategies to manage and mitigate pest outbreaks in a rapidly changing climate, thereby safeguarding crop yields and ensuring food security. This study advances our comprehension of the intricate ecological interactions within agricultural ecosystems, offering a foundation for more informed decision-making in the face of ongoing climate change challenges.

Pages 70-75
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOIL ORGANIC POLLUTANTS SURVEY AT A CERTAIN OIL DEPOT SITE IN GUANGZHOU

ABSTRACT

RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOIL ORGANIC POLLUTANTS SURVEY AT A CERTAIN OIL DEPOT SITE IN GUANGZHOU

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Zhenxing Li, Xiaowen Kang, Kunling Liang, Xiaogang Cai

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.01.2023.64.69

In order to investigate the pollution situation of the relocation site of an oil depot in Guangzhou, based on the health risk assessment theory, the investigation and monitoring of soil and groundwater organic pollutants in the site was conducted, and the health risk assessment was carried out combined with the monitoring data.24 types of pollution factors, including 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, were detected and the maximum concentration accounted for 67% of the screening value; toluene and extractable petroleum hydrocarbon (C10-C40) were detected in the plot, and the maximum concentration accounted for 1%~2% of the screening value. The results show that the maximum risk area of the legacy site is the oil depot area, with soil and groundwater organic matter; the maximum concentration of organic pollutants in the site (≤10-6)Or non-carcinogenic hazard entropy (≤1), and the future exposure receptor is not affected by the health risk of the soil and groundwater organic pollutants in the site.

Pages 64-69
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE FOR AUTOMATED ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LOW-HEIGHT TUNNEL FARMS

ABSTRACT

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE FOR AUTOMATED ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LOW-HEIGHT TUNNEL FARMS

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author:Ali Raza, Hassna Maryam, Hamza Bukhari, Kamran Ikram, Ahmed Rizwan, Muhammad Amjad, Yasir Niaz, Noman Ali Buttar, Muhammad Mo hsin Waqas, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Mubashar Omer, Jaffar Sattar, Arslan Afzal

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.01.2023.58.63

Agricultural machinery is an essential tool for improving agricultural production per unit area. It helps farmers to grow more crops in less time and with greater efficiency to meet food security for exponentially growing population. Tunnel farming is an agriculture technique in which the crop is grown in a long row, covered with plastic sheets to maintain favorable environment for crop growth while minimizing environmental and biological hazards. Tunnel farms are divided into low height tunnel, high tunnel, and walk-in tunnel. It is important to monitor tunnels for temperature and relative humidity because these two factors promote disease and pest attack. In low height tunnels, it becomes difficult to physically monitor temperature variations, humidity variation and pest or disease attack. Therefore, it is required to develop suitable solution to this problem which can be provided in the form of small, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with necessary sensing devices. In this study, a small UGV having camera, temperature and humidity sensors was developed and evaluated at four different sites. These sites included lemon orchard, research farms, main boulevard and field farm. The temperature and humidity reading were recorded at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 16:00 a day on 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 ft. length from field boundary. In lemon orchard temperature is minimum (240C) and humidity is maximum (69%) at 8:00 AM. In the evening at 2:00 PM temperature was maximum (390C) and humidity was minimum (45%). In research farm temperature was minimum (280C) and humidity was maximum (65%) at 8:00AM. In the evening at 2:00PM temperature was maximum (430C) and humidity was minimum (40%). In Kfueit boulevard temperature was minimum (250C) and humidity was maximum (69%) at 8:00AM. In the evening at 2:00PM temperature was maximum (400C) and humidity was minimum (46%). In Progressive farmer farm temperature was minimum (300C) and humidity was maximum (69%) at 8:00AM. In the evening at 2:00PM temperature was maximum (430C) and humidity was minimum (46%).

Pages 58-63
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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A REVIEW: SMART WEED DETECTION AND HEALTH MONITORING AGROBOT

ABSTRACT

A REVIEW: SMART WEED DETECTION AND HEALTH MONITORING AGROBOT

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Moiz Ur Rehman, Ali Hassan, Shahzaman Khan, Sohaib Khan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.02.2023.48.57

As agriculture becomes increasingly important in ensuring food security for the world’s growing population, there has been a rise in the development of smart agricultural robots to optimize crop yield. One critical area where these robots can make a significant impact is in weed detection and health monitoring, which can have a significant impact on crop yield and quality. This review paper aims to examine the latest research in smart weed detection and health monitoring agrobots. The paper discusses several studies on autonomous agricultural robots that detect and remove weeds from fields using image processing, deep learning, and fuzzy logic-based classification techniques. In addition to weed detection and removal, the review paper also examines research on agrobots that monitor the health of crops. Moreover, the paper also discusses various techniques for path planning and control for autonomous agricultural vehicles. Finally, the review paper analyzes the role of single-board computers such as Raspberry Pi in agriculture. Overall, this review paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the latest research in smart weed detection and health monitoring agrobots. By examining the various techniques, methodologies, and algorithms employed by researchers, this paper offers valuable insights for future research and development in this field.

Pages 48-57
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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EXPLORING THE ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION IN TROPICAL RAINFORESTS

ABSTRACT

EXPLORING THE ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION IN TROPICAL RAINFORESTS

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Bappa Hosen

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.02.2023.77.82

Tropical rainforests, characterized by their remarkable biodiversity and critical role in climate regulation, face unprecedented threats from deforestation. This research seeks to comprehensively explore the ecological consequences of deforestation in tropical rainforests by synthesizing existing literature and empirical studies. Our objectives encompass assessing the impacts on biodiversity, climate, and ecosystem services, while also examining conservation efforts and policy recommendations. The analysis of biodiversity impacts reveals that deforestation disrupts complex ecosystems, leading to species extinctions, altered ecological interactions, and genetic diversity loss. These effects resonate across taxonomic groups, affecting both well-known and lesser-known species. Deforestation’s relationship with climate change is a central concern. We find that tropical rainforests act as vital carbon sinks, and their degradation exacerbates global warming. Deforestation-induced changes in precipitation patterns and greenhouse gas emissions further highlight the interconnectedness of these ecosystems with climate dynamics. Ecosystem services, including water purification, pollination, and cultural values, are compromised by deforestation, impacting local communities and global society. Effective conservation strategies, such as protected areas and reforestation initiatives, offer hope, but face challenges of scale and implementation. Drawing on case studies from diverse tropical rainforest regions, we illustrate the variation in ecological consequences, emphasizing the need for context-specific solutions. Overall, It examines the causes and drivers of deforestation, the ecological functions of rainforests, and the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity, carbon cycling, climate, and local communities. The paper also discusses conservation efforts and policy implications for mitigating these consequences, this research underscores the urgent need for collective action to combat deforestation in tropical rainforests. The implications of this study inform policy recommendations, emphasizing the importance of international agreements and multi-stakeholder collaboration. Our findings highlight the imperative to protect these irreplaceable ecosystems to safeguard biodiversity, mitigate climate change, and preserve the ecosystem services they provide for present and future generations.

Pages 77-82
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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GEOENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION ALONG QUA IBOE TERMINAL SHORELINE, IBENO, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

GEOENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION ALONG QUA IBOE TERMINAL SHORELINE, IBENO, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Uduak B. Ilaumo, Bassey E. Ephraim, Peter A. Neji, Akanimo D. Akpan, Gregory U. Sikakwe

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.01.2023.36.47

Coastal sediments and soils along Qua Iboe Terminal shoreline, Ibeno have suffered high potential of being contaminated by heavy metals leading to health risk. it is expedient to evaluate their levels in terms of contamination or /and pollution on the soils and sediments. The aim of this research was to determine the extent of contamination caused by heavy metals in the study area so as to assess its eco-toxicological risk and geochemical distribution pattern. Sediment and soil samples from Qua Iboe Terminal shoreline and its environs were collected and analyzed for Six heavy metals [Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), and Iron (Fe)] using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The physicochemical parameters of sediments and soils were determined using standard methods. The results of all the physicochemical parameters determined were within maximum tolerable limits. The average heavy metals concentration in soil and sediment followed the order of Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Mo with corresponding values for soil and sediment of 55.60, 48.30, 21.80, 11.9, 3.4 mg/kg and 47.80, 35.00, 17.90, 11.74 and 5.4 mg/kg respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that Pearson Correlation were significant at r >0.500 between some metals. The anthropogenic influence on soil indicated low contamination by Cu, Cr, and Zn and moderate contamination by Pb and Mo, for both sediments and soils. The geo-accumulation index for most metals was of class 0 (uncontaminated) except for elements like Pb and Mo. The enrichment factor had values less than 1.5 for both soil and sediments showing deficiency to minimal enrichment. The pollution load index (PLI) for sediment were < 1 indicating low pollution status and > 1 for soil at locations 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14 and 15 indicating moderate pollution status in some sites. Evaluated mean contamination factor revealed moderate contamination for Pb and Mo for both soil (1.71 & 3.43) and sediment(1.09 &1.14). On the basis of the analytical data available, areas in close proximity to the offshore installations (Utana/Iwokpom/Opulum Creek) have the greatest impact on sediment and soil in the study area.

Pages 36-47
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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DECLINE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM THROUGH CLIMATE CHANGE: DIEBACK IN PERSIAN OAK (QUERCUS BRANTII LINDL.)

ABSTRACT

DECLINE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM THROUGH CLIMATE CHANGE: DIEBACK IN PERSIAN OAK (QUERCUS BRANTII LINDL.)

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Mohsen Javanmiri pour

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.02.2023.66.76

Climate change could alter forest disturbances, such as insect outbreaks, invasive species, wildfires, storms, and disease. In the present study, the influence of climate change on the structure and decline of Persian oak in the Zagros forest stands is scrutinized. A regular random sampling with fixed sample plots through two sampling periods was applied in 1998 and 2018. Further, the precipitation, temperature, frost, and relative humidity climatic elements pattern was studied from 1988 to 2018. The cross-sectional of standard-form oak was decreased from 19.2, 23.3, and 24 m3.ha in the first sampling stage to 12.3, 16.8, 17.8 m3.ha in the second sampling in Vizhenan, Chelleh, Ghalajeh, respectively. Levene’s test for equality of variances and mean comparison findings via an independent t-test showed a significant difference between the compared groups in 1998 and 2018. The Mann-Kendall analysis results of climatic elements showed that the precipitation, frost, and relative humidity decreased, and the temperature increased during the study period. Noticeable stability was perceived in the studied indices in the first decade and partially in the second decade, but there were many fluctuations in the third decade. According to the findings, it can be assumed that climate change and the occurrence of severe drought stresses cause oak trees to suffer from physiological vulnerability.

Pages 66-76
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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SECURING AN ALTERNATE POWER SOURCE FOR DHAKA CITY THROUGH RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION

ABSTRACT

SECURING AN ALTERNATE POWER SOURCE FOR DHAKA CITY THROUGH RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Md Mehedi Hasan Emon, Tahsina Khan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.02.2023.61.65

This research delves into the critical issue of renewable energy integration as an alternative power source in Dhaka city, a metropolis of over 21 million people grappling with a burgeoning energy demand. Through qualitative interviews involving 40 participants from various sectors, including policymakers, renewable energy experts, energy companies, and community representatives, this study assesses the feasibility, challenges, and potential solutions for transitioning to renewable energy. The research elucidates a varied understanding of renewable energy sources, with solar and wind being the most recognized. Notably, electricity and natural gas dominate as primary energy sources, reflecting the present energy landscape. Conspicuously, coal’s absence underscores Bangladesh’s energy context. Challenges such as elevated installation costs, infrastructural limitations, and awareness gaps are identified as barriers to widescale adoption. The study advances actionable strategies including regulatory frameworks, financial incentives, and public awareness campaigns. Participants emphasize the pivotal roles of government policy, private sector engagement, and civil society collaboration. Additionally, the study underscores the multi-faceted benefits of renewables, ranging from environmental advantages like reduced carbon emissions to socio-economic gains like job creation. As Dhaka seeks sustainable solutions to its energy conundrum, this research presents a roadmap for policymakers and stakeholders, charting a course towards a greener, more resilient, and energy-secure future.

Pages 61-65
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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DYNAMICS OF THE FOREST LANDSCAPE IN THE MIKEMBO SANCTUARY: 20 YEARS AFTER ITS CREATION AS A FLORA AND FAUNA CONSERVATION RESERVE, UPPER-KATANGA, DR CONGO

ABSTRACT

DYNAMICS OF THE FOREST LANDSCAPE IN THE MIKEMBO SANCTUARY: 20 YEARS AFTER ITS CREATION AS A FLORA AND FAUNA CONSERVATION RESERVE, UPPER-KATANGA, DR CONGO

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Kalambulwa Nkombe Alphonse, Kakule Muleverwa Simeon, Mumba Tshanika Urbain, Lobho Lopa Joel

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.02.2023.54.60

Remote sensing is very important for conservation and biodiversity research and applications. For instance, it can be used for monitoring changes in ecosystems. Objective: The objective of this paper was to analyze the change in the forest landscape of Mikembo Sanctuary between 2002 and 2022 using satellite imagery. Method: Supervised classification by maximum likelihood algorithm was performed and helped to differentiate 3 land use classes. Results: The cartographic and statistical analysis show that land use dynamics of the study area are dominated by an increase in forest and a reduction in bare soil. The forest increases with 0.78 km2 (18.04% of the study area) and therefore had a rate of change of more than 32.25%. Conclusion: It has been demonstrated that the Miombo woodland, specially Mikembo Sanctuary is capable of regenerating naturally or by assisted means. Encouraging people for using alternative solutions is necessary to ensure the sustainable forest management and utilization.

Pages 54-60
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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STUDY ON THE SPATIOTEMPORAL DIFFERENTIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF “MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, FORESTS, FIELDS, LAKES, AND GRASS CITIES” IN THE TAI’AN SECTION OF THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN

ABSTRACT

STUDY ON THE SPATIOTEMPORAL DIFFERENTIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF “MOUNTAINS, RIVERS, FORESTS, FIELDS, LAKES, AND GRASS CITIES” IN THE TAI’AN SECTION OF THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Lei Zhang, Li Shi, Fei Wang, Haodong Shang, Xiaomeng Zhou

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.02.2023.48.53

The natural environment of the Tai’an section of the Yellow River Basin is complex and diverse, the land use function and structure have distinct regional and cultural characteristics. This article is based on literature review, field research and remote sensing image interpretation to construct an analysis variable database. Based on models such as land use dynamics and transfer matrix, the spatiotemporal differentiation and variation characteristics in this area are analyzed. Discovery: ①As a representative area with significant natural background characteristics of “mountain water field”, forest land, cultivated land, and water bodies constitute the main matrix and corridor of land use. ②Over time, the distribution and composition of the spatial distribution in the Tai’an section of the Yellow River Basin have undergone significant changes. The proportion of arable land, forest land and grassland areas to the total land use area has decreased overall, the proportion of building land, water bodies, and unused land has increased. Over 20s, the spatial distribution structure and composition in the study area have undergone significant changes. ③Between 2000 and 2020, cultivated land and construction land constituted the main body and background of land use conversion in this area. This study can provide reference for promoting the coordinated development in the Tai’an section of the Yellow River Basin.

Pages 48-53
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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