Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

INSECT PEST INCIDENCE IN MUNGBEAN ACROSS VARIED TEMPERATURES AND ELEVATED CO2 CONCENTRATIONS

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INSECT PEST INCIDENCE IN MUNGBEAN ACROSS VARIED TEMPERATURES AND ELEVATED CO2 CONCENTRATIONS

ABSTRACT

INSECT PEST INCIDENCE IN MUNGBEAN ACROSS VARIED TEMPERATURES AND ELEVATED CO2 CONCENTRATIONS

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Tamjida Islam Tora, Md. Mamunur Rahman, Mansura Afroz, Md. Ramiz Uddin Miah, Md. Humayun Kabir, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Jahidul Hassan, Md. Abdullah Al Mamun

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.01.2023.70.75

The effects of climate change, including extreme weather conditions characterized by rising atmospheric CO2 levels, alterations in precipitation patterns, and elevated temperatures, significantly impact crop production and the prevalence of agricultural pests. This study aimed to unravel the nuanced responses of various insect pests to these dynamic climatic shifts by conducting an experiment within the agronomy field at BSMRAU. The objective was to investigate the incidence of insect pests on mungbean plants under varying temperature and CO2 level conditions. To achieve this, four open top chambers (OTCs) were deployed, each featuring distinct CO2 concentrations, OTC-1 (400 ppm), OTC-2 (450 ppm), OTC-3 (500 ppm), and OTC-4 (550 ppm). Additionally, electronic thermo-hygrometers were strategically placed within these chambers to monitor the relevant environmental parameters. The results of this comprehensive study unveiled the presence of five distinct insect species that were observed infesting mungbean crops. These included aphids, ladybird beetles, whiteflies, bean pod borers, and caterpillars. The findings provided valuable insights into the intricate interplay between CO2 levels, temperature, and the incidence of these insect pests. Notably, it was found that an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 550 ppm created an optimal environment for aphid infestations, with an ideal temperature range between 32-34°C. In contrast, a concentration CO2 of 450 ppm was identified as most conducive to the other five insect species. Bean pod borers, in particular, demonstrated a preference for temperatures ranging from 30.1-32.9°C, while the impact of temperature variations on the remaining insect species was deemed statistically insignificant. These findings shed light on the complex relationships between rising CO2 levels, temperature fluctuations, and insect pest dynamics within the context of mungbean cultivation. The knowledge gained from this research is indispensable for the development of effective strategies to manage and mitigate pest outbreaks in a rapidly changing climate, thereby safeguarding crop yields and ensuring food security. This study advances our comprehension of the intricate ecological interactions within agricultural ecosystems, offering a foundation for more informed decision-making in the face of ongoing climate change challenges.

Pages 70-75
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE FOR AUTOMATED ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LOW-HEIGHT TUNNEL FARMS

ABSTRACT

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF UNMANNED GROUND VEHICLE FOR AUTOMATED ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OF LOW-HEIGHT TUNNEL FARMS

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author:Ali Raza, Hassna Maryam, Hamza Bukhari, Kamran Ikram, Ahmed Rizwan, Muhammad Amjad, Yasir Niaz, Noman Ali Buttar, Muhammad Mo hsin Waqas, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Mubashar Omer, Jaffar Sattar, Arslan Afzal

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.01.2023.58.63

Agricultural machinery is an essential tool for improving agricultural production per unit area. It helps farmers to grow more crops in less time and with greater efficiency to meet food security for exponentially growing population. Tunnel farming is an agriculture technique in which the crop is grown in a long row, covered with plastic sheets to maintain favorable environment for crop growth while minimizing environmental and biological hazards. Tunnel farms are divided into low height tunnel, high tunnel, and walk-in tunnel. It is important to monitor tunnels for temperature and relative humidity because these two factors promote disease and pest attack. In low height tunnels, it becomes difficult to physically monitor temperature variations, humidity variation and pest or disease attack. Therefore, it is required to develop suitable solution to this problem which can be provided in the form of small, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) equipped with necessary sensing devices. In this study, a small UGV having camera, temperature and humidity sensors was developed and evaluated at four different sites. These sites included lemon orchard, research farms, main boulevard and field farm. The temperature and humidity reading were recorded at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 16:00 a day on 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 ft. length from field boundary. In lemon orchard temperature is minimum (240C) and humidity is maximum (69%) at 8:00 AM. In the evening at 2:00 PM temperature was maximum (390C) and humidity was minimum (45%). In research farm temperature was minimum (280C) and humidity was maximum (65%) at 8:00AM. In the evening at 2:00PM temperature was maximum (430C) and humidity was minimum (40%). In Kfueit boulevard temperature was minimum (250C) and humidity was maximum (69%) at 8:00AM. In the evening at 2:00PM temperature was maximum (400C) and humidity was minimum (46%). In Progressive farmer farm temperature was minimum (300C) and humidity was maximum (69%) at 8:00AM. In the evening at 2:00PM temperature was maximum (430C) and humidity was minimum (46%).

Pages 58-63
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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A REVIEW: SMART WEED DETECTION AND HEALTH MONITORING AGROBOT

ABSTRACT

A REVIEW: SMART WEED DETECTION AND HEALTH MONITORING AGROBOT

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Moiz Ur Rehman, Ali Hassan, Shahzaman Khan, Sohaib Khan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.02.2023.48.57

As agriculture becomes increasingly important in ensuring food security for the world’s growing population, there has been a rise in the development of smart agricultural robots to optimize crop yield. One critical area where these robots can make a significant impact is in weed detection and health monitoring, which can have a significant impact on crop yield and quality. This review paper aims to examine the latest research in smart weed detection and health monitoring agrobots. The paper discusses several studies on autonomous agricultural robots that detect and remove weeds from fields using image processing, deep learning, and fuzzy logic-based classification techniques. In addition to weed detection and removal, the review paper also examines research on agrobots that monitor the health of crops. Moreover, the paper also discusses various techniques for path planning and control for autonomous agricultural vehicles. Finally, the review paper analyzes the role of single-board computers such as Raspberry Pi in agriculture. Overall, this review paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the latest research in smart weed detection and health monitoring agrobots. By examining the various techniques, methodologies, and algorithms employed by researchers, this paper offers valuable insights for future research and development in this field.

Pages 48-57
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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EXPLORING THE ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION IN TROPICAL RAINFORESTS

ABSTRACT

EXPLORING THE ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION IN TROPICAL RAINFORESTS

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Bappa Hosen

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.02.2023.77.82

Tropical rainforests, characterized by their remarkable biodiversity and critical role in climate regulation, face unprecedented threats from deforestation. This research seeks to comprehensively explore the ecological consequences of deforestation in tropical rainforests by synthesizing existing literature and empirical studies. Our objectives encompass assessing the impacts on biodiversity, climate, and ecosystem services, while also examining conservation efforts and policy recommendations. The analysis of biodiversity impacts reveals that deforestation disrupts complex ecosystems, leading to species extinctions, altered ecological interactions, and genetic diversity loss. These effects resonate across taxonomic groups, affecting both well-known and lesser-known species. Deforestation’s relationship with climate change is a central concern. We find that tropical rainforests act as vital carbon sinks, and their degradation exacerbates global warming. Deforestation-induced changes in precipitation patterns and greenhouse gas emissions further highlight the interconnectedness of these ecosystems with climate dynamics. Ecosystem services, including water purification, pollination, and cultural values, are compromised by deforestation, impacting local communities and global society. Effective conservation strategies, such as protected areas and reforestation initiatives, offer hope, but face challenges of scale and implementation. Drawing on case studies from diverse tropical rainforest regions, we illustrate the variation in ecological consequences, emphasizing the need for context-specific solutions. Overall, It examines the causes and drivers of deforestation, the ecological functions of rainforests, and the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity, carbon cycling, climate, and local communities. The paper also discusses conservation efforts and policy implications for mitigating these consequences, this research underscores the urgent need for collective action to combat deforestation in tropical rainforests. The implications of this study inform policy recommendations, emphasizing the importance of international agreements and multi-stakeholder collaboration. Our findings highlight the imperative to protect these irreplaceable ecosystems to safeguard biodiversity, mitigate climate change, and preserve the ecosystem services they provide for present and future generations.

Pages 77-82
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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GEOENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION ALONG QUA IBOE TERMINAL SHORELINE, IBENO, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

GEOENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION ALONG QUA IBOE TERMINAL SHORELINE, IBENO, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Uduak B. Ilaumo, Bassey E. Ephraim, Peter A. Neji, Akanimo D. Akpan, Gregory U. Sikakwe

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.01.2023.36.47

Coastal sediments and soils along Qua Iboe Terminal shoreline, Ibeno have suffered high potential of being contaminated by heavy metals leading to health risk. it is expedient to evaluate their levels in terms of contamination or /and pollution on the soils and sediments. The aim of this research was to determine the extent of contamination caused by heavy metals in the study area so as to assess its eco-toxicological risk and geochemical distribution pattern. Sediment and soil samples from Qua Iboe Terminal shoreline and its environs were collected and analyzed for Six heavy metals [Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr), and Iron (Fe)] using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The physicochemical parameters of sediments and soils were determined using standard methods. The results of all the physicochemical parameters determined were within maximum tolerable limits. The average heavy metals concentration in soil and sediment followed the order of Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Mo with corresponding values for soil and sediment of 55.60, 48.30, 21.80, 11.9, 3.4 mg/kg and 47.80, 35.00, 17.90, 11.74 and 5.4 mg/kg respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that Pearson Correlation were significant at r >0.500 between some metals. The anthropogenic influence on soil indicated low contamination by Cu, Cr, and Zn and moderate contamination by Pb and Mo, for both sediments and soils. The geo-accumulation index for most metals was of class 0 (uncontaminated) except for elements like Pb and Mo. The enrichment factor had values less than 1.5 for both soil and sediments showing deficiency to minimal enrichment. The pollution load index (PLI) for sediment were < 1 indicating low pollution status and > 1 for soil at locations 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14 and 15 indicating moderate pollution status in some sites. Evaluated mean contamination factor revealed moderate contamination for Pb and Mo for both soil (1.71 & 3.43) and sediment(1.09 &1.14). On the basis of the analytical data available, areas in close proximity to the offshore installations (Utana/Iwokpom/Opulum Creek) have the greatest impact on sediment and soil in the study area.

Pages 36-47
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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SECURING AN ALTERNATE POWER SOURCE FOR DHAKA CITY THROUGH RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION

ABSTRACT

SECURING AN ALTERNATE POWER SOURCE FOR DHAKA CITY THROUGH RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATION

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Md Mehedi Hasan Emon, Tahsina Khan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.02.2023.61.65

This research delves into the critical issue of renewable energy integration as an alternative power source in Dhaka city, a metropolis of over 21 million people grappling with a burgeoning energy demand. Through qualitative interviews involving 40 participants from various sectors, including policymakers, renewable energy experts, energy companies, and community representatives, this study assesses the feasibility, challenges, and potential solutions for transitioning to renewable energy. The research elucidates a varied understanding of renewable energy sources, with solar and wind being the most recognized. Notably, electricity and natural gas dominate as primary energy sources, reflecting the present energy landscape. Conspicuously, coal’s absence underscores Bangladesh’s energy context. Challenges such as elevated installation costs, infrastructural limitations, and awareness gaps are identified as barriers to widescale adoption. The study advances actionable strategies including regulatory frameworks, financial incentives, and public awareness campaigns. Participants emphasize the pivotal roles of government policy, private sector engagement, and civil society collaboration. Additionally, the study underscores the multi-faceted benefits of renewables, ranging from environmental advantages like reduced carbon emissions to socio-economic gains like job creation. As Dhaka seeks sustainable solutions to its energy conundrum, this research presents a roadmap for policymakers and stakeholders, charting a course towards a greener, more resilient, and energy-secure future.

Pages 61-65
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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FLORISTICS, CARBON STOCK QUANTIFICATION AND SEQUESTRATION ABILITY OF AN ENCROACHED FOREST IN AKWA IBOM STATE UNIVERSITY, IKOT AKPADEN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

FLORISTICS, CARBON STOCK QUANTIFICATION AND SEQUESTRATION ABILITY OF AN ENCROACHED FOREST IN AKWA IBOM STATE UNIVERSITY, IKOT AKPADEN, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Richard Ekeng Ita, Felix Okpako Ogbemudia, Emem Okon Mbong

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.01.2023.30.35

This study assessed the floristics, carbon stock and sequestration ability of an encroached forest in Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria. Ten plots within the forest were chosen and ten belt transects were established. Trees species were identified in each plot. Litter boxes were placed in each plot at 10 m for litter collection. Soils were collected from the plots at different depths. AGB (aboveground biomass), BGB (belowground biomass), AGC (aboveground carbon) and BGC (belowground carbon) were calculated using appropriate allometric equations. Twenty-two woody species were present in the forest. The values for AGB, AGC, BGM and BGC were 119.31 Mg ha-1, 59.65 Mg C.ha-1, 24.46 Mg ha-1 and 12.23 Mg C.ha-1, each. The total carbon stock (TCS) and biomass in the litter were 9.37 MgCha-1 and 20 Mg ha-1, respectively. The carbon stock in the litter followed this order: leaf (4.10±0.08 Mg C.ha-1) > twigs (3.02±0.04 Mg C.ha-1) > fine root (2.25±0.01 Mg C.ha-1). The TCS in the soil was 33.73 MgCha-1 and followed this decreasing trend: 0-15 cm (23.80±2.65 MgCha-1) > 0 – 30 cm (9.93±1.02 MgCha-1). The TCS and carbon sequestration ability (CSA) of this forest were 125.61 Mg C.ha-1 and 458.31 Mg CO2ha-1. The CSA of this forest followed this decreasing order: AGC pool (218.92 Mg CO2ha-1) > soil (121.11 Mg CO2ha-1) > litter (73.40 Mg CO2ha-1) > BGC pool (44.88 Mg CO2ha-1). These results validate this forest as having a considerable carbon sequestration ability, though, this ability is threatened by human disturbances.

Pages 30-35
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON COMMUNITY DISASTER RISK AND IDENTIFYING STRATEGIES FOR ADAPTATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

ABSTRACT

EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON COMMUNITY DISASTER RISK AND IDENTIFYING STRATEGIES FOR ADAPTATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW FOR SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Bernard Moeketsi Hlalele

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.02.2023.36.39

Sub-Saharan Africa is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts, such as droughts, floods, and desertification, which threaten local communities. The purpose of this study was to review existing literature on the impact of climate change on disaster risk in sub-Saharan Africa and identify adaptation strategies to mitigate these effects. A comprehensive search of academic databases was conducted, and identified studies were analysed thematically. The study found that climate change intensifies extreme weather events, resulting in waterborne diseases, displacement, food insecurity, and famine. Poverty and gender-specific challenges further contribute to vulnerability. Effective adaptation strategies include climate-smart agriculture, improved infrastructure and early warning systems, and community-based disaster risk reduction. Integrating adaptation and risk reduction into development plans at national and local levels is crucial. Partnerships and innovative financing mechanisms can help overcome implementation challenges. Addressing gender-specific issues and involving local communities in adaptation design and implementation are also important. In conclusion, enhancing the resilience of vulnerable communities in sub-Saharan Africa requires comprehensive adaptation measures integrated with development plans.

Pages 36-39
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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IMPACT OF CREEPING VEGETABLE COVER CROPS ON MINERAL N AND MICROBIAL GROUP POPULATION OF A SANDY LOAM ULTISOL UNDER IMMATURE RUBBER PLANTATION IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

IMPACT OF CREEPING VEGETABLE COVER CROPS ON MINERAL N AND MICROBIAL GROUP POPULATION OF A SANDY LOAM ULTISOL UNDER IMMATURE RUBBER PLANTATION IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: OKORE, Ikokwu Kalu, NWAGWU, Francis Aniezi and EGWUNATUM, Anslem Enwelem

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.01.2023.16.20

The use of forage legume species as cover crops in the management of immature rubber plantation soils is not attractive to smallholder rubber farmers (owners of about 75% of the global acreage under rubber production). We sampled immature rubber plantation soils under the following respective creeping vegetable cover crops: Vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., Walp. Ssp. Sessquipedallis.), Egusi melon (Cucumeropsis manni Naaudi) and Broadleaf pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and a forage legume species (Centrosema pubescens) for four consecutive years at the Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin. The samples were analyzed for mineral N (NO3- and NH4+) content, and microbial group populations at the onset and end of rains, as well as selected physical and chemical properties. Generally, the result showed that the creeping vegetable cover crop species had a comparative positive effect on the soil properties assessed relative to the forage legume species. The two sampled period mean values of NO3- and NH4+ (10.62 and 8.18 mgkg-1, respectively) obtained from the plantation that had vegetable cowpea were significantly (P≤ 0.05) higher than those of the Egusi melon and Broadleaf pumpkin, but slightly (not significant) lower than that of the Centrosema pubescens. The soil microbial groups (Fungi, Bacteria and Actinomycetes) populations were significantly affected by the cover crop species. At the onset and end of rains, plantations that had vegetable cowpea and Centrosema pubescense cover crops had the maximum number of bacteria (29.58 and 29.50 C.fug-1drywt.soil ×10-6, in that order), while the maximum number of fungi was found in the broadleaf pumpkin (23.66 C.fug-1drywt.soil ×10-6) and Egusi melon (22.92 C.fug-1drywt.soil ×10-6) cover crop plantations. The broadleaf pumpkin and Egusi melon had significant positive effect on the soil surface layer (0-15cm) pH, Org. C, base cations, bulk density and percentage water filled pore space. These findings suggest that the creeping vegetable cover crops could be considered as alternative to the forage legumes in the management of immature rubber plantation soils.

Pages 16-20
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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APPLICATION OF GEOGAPHIC INFOMATION SYSTEM FOR THE APPRIASAL OF ENVIRONMETAL ASSESSMENT

ABSTRACT

APPLICATION OF GEOGAPHIC INFOMATION SYSTEM FOR THE APPRIASAL OF ENVIRONMETAL ASSESSMENT

Journal: Environment & Ecosystem Science (EES)

Author: Sufiyan I, I.M Sagir, B.L Nasir, E. Shettima

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/ees.01.2023.13.15

Environmental assessment involved the overall monitoring of the atmosphere and biosphere where flora and fauna exist and interact as ecosystem. This environment is required to be assessed and monitored time to time to check the anomalies. The good tools for the measurement and evaluation in our habitable world is Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing. This technology can be applicable in solving environmental issues and create medium for decision making and planning. The consequences of the application of GIS and RS are time saving, accuracy, reduce cost, good planning, suitability and accessibility.

Pages 13-15
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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